# Gate delays

Gate Delays

In Verilog, a designer can specify the gate delays in verilog code. This helps the designer to get a real time behavior of the logic circuit.

Rise delay: It is equal to the time taken by a gate output transition to 1, from another value 0, x, or z.

Fall delay: It is equal to the time taken by a gate output transition to 0, from another value 1, x, or z.

Turn-off delay: It is equal to the time taken by a gate output transition to high impedance state, from another value 1, x, or z.

• If the gate output changes to x, the minimum of the three delays is considered.
• If only one delay is specified, it is used for all delays.
• If two values are specified, they are considered as rise, and fall delays.
• If three values are specified, they are considered as rise, fall, and turn-off delays.
• The default value of all delays is zero.

and #(5) and_1 (out, in0, in1);
// All delay values are 5 time units.

and #(3,4,5) nand_1 (out, in0, in1);
// rise delay = 3, fall delay = 4, and turn-off delay = 5.

and #(3,4) or_1 (out, in0, in1);
// rise delay = 3, fall delay = 4, and turn-off delay = min(3,4) = 3.

There is another way of specifying delay times in verilog. Min:Typ:Max values for each delay. This helps designer to have a much better real time experience of design simulation, as in real time logic circuits the delays are not constant. The user can choose one of the delay values using +maxdelays, +typdelays, and +mindelays at run time. The typical value is the default value.

and #(4:5:6) and_1 (out, in0, in1);
// For all delay values: Min=4, Typ=5, Max=6.

and #(3:4:5,4:5:6,5:6:7) nand_1 (out, in0, in1);
// rise delay: Min=3, Typ=4, Max=5, fall delay: Min=4, Typ=5, Max=6, turn-off delay: Min=5, Typ=6, Max=7.

In the above example, if the designer chooses typical values, then rise delay = 4, fall delay = 5, turn-off delay = 6.